Gunadi et al: Comparative analysis of the outcomes of COVID-19 between patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta variants: a retrospective cohort study [Preprint], in: medRxiv (May 3, 2022), online in: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.04.30.22274532.
Background The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has replaced the previously dominant Delta variant because of high transmissibility. It is responsible for the current increase in the COVID-19 infectivity rate worldwide. However, studies on the impact of the Omicron variant on the severity of COVID-19 are still limited in developing countries. In this study, the authors compared the outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta variants and associated with prognostic factors, including age, sex, comorbidities, and smoking.
Methods The authors involved 352 patients, 139 with the Omicron variant and 213 with the Delta variant. The whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 were conducted using the Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencer.
Results Ct value and mean age of COVID-19 patients were not significantly different between both groups (Delta: 20.35 ± 4.07 vs. Omicron: 20.62 ± 3.75; p=0.540; and Delta: 36.52 ± 21.24 vs. Omicron: 39.10 ± 21.24; p=0.266, respectively). Patients infected with Omicron and Delta variants showed similar hospitalization (p=0.433) and mortality rates (p=0.565). Multivariate analysis showed that older age (≥65 years) had higher risk for hospitalization (OR=3.67 [95% CI=1.22-10.94]; p=0.019) and fatalities (OR=3.93 [95% CI=1.35-11.42]; p=0.012). In addition, patients with cardiovascular disease had higher risk for hospitalization (OR=5.27 [95% CI=1.07-25.97]; p=0.041), whereas patients with diabetes revealed higher risk for fatalities (OR=9.39 [95% CI=3.30-26.72]; p=<0.001).
Conclusions The study shows that patients infected with Omicron and Delta variants reveal similar clinical outcomes, including hospitalization and mortality. In addition, the findings further confirm that older age, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes are strong prognostic factors for the outcomes of COVID-19 patients.
Funding Statement The Indonesian Ministry of Health and Dr. Sardjito Hospital funded the study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection, and analysis, decision to publish, or manuscript preparation.